Padraig Colman

Rambling ruminations of an Irishman in Sri Lanka

Tag: Louisiana

A Tale of Two Wars – A Case for the UNHRC?

This article appeared in The Nation on Sunday March 3 2013

 

Last week I watched a film that began with a realistic depiction of violent combat at the end of a brutal secessionist civil war. There was no glory in this combat. This was hand to hand, opposing troops rolling around in filthy mud, hacking at each other, kicking faces and stabbing guts at close quarters.

There was much talk throughout the movie of a 13th amendment to the Constitution.
The movie was Lincoln. That particular 13th Amendment related to the abolition of slavery. Lincoln, needed a two-thirds majority in the legislature.

J David Hacker, a demographic historian, has recalculated the death toll of the American Civil War, and increased it by more than 20%.  His  estimate of the number of dead up to 850,000 – which Hacker says  means the social impact is about 37,000 more widows, and 90,000 more orphans than previous  estimates.

One commentator says: “The film tells us about the messy reality of governance, and about a democratic process run by flawed mortals whose noble aims often require ignoble means.” True north is essential, the president tells a congressman, but you also have to navigate the swamps and deserts and chasms along the way. If you can’t do that, he asks, “What’s the good of knowing true north?”

 
Patronage-peddling is given a comic spin in Tony Kushner’s screenplay and Spielberg’s direction. The wiles of “Bilbo” (James Spader) and his group are underlined with comical music to make us laugh at their techniques. In addition to buying votes, Lincoln sends a letter denying any knowledge of a peace delegation from Richmond, even though this is clearly a lie. Jo Ann Skousen writing in Liberty was saddened that the audience in the theatre cheered at this: “I was disheartened that they didn’t feel the same shame I felt when I saw a president of the USA deliberately lie to get his way. But I wasn’t surprised. It’s what we expect today.”

I visited Louisiana in 1996 and got the feeling that the Civil War had not ended. Despite the efforts of Lincoln, JFK, LBJ and MLK, Louisiana is still segregated.  Seemingly-decent whites speak of blacks in terms that would cause horror in polite society in Europe or Sri Lanka. I was shown around a plantation house by a “docent” employed by the heritage industry to sanitise the horrors of the Old South. Following the civil war, Louisiana was under martial law. Nevertheless, white Democrats blocked black voter-registration. In 1900 African-Americans formed 47% of Louisiana’s population – 652,013 black citizens. By 1910, there were only 730 black voters.

White Democrats had established one-party rule which they maintained long into the 20th century. White racists turned to terrorism to dissuade blacks from voting. The Tuskegee Institute has recorded 3,446 blacks were lynched between 1882 and 1968. The most prevalent alleged crime accusation was murder, followed by a list of infractions that included verbal and physical aggression, spirited business competition and independence of mind. Law-enforcement authorities sometimes participated directly or held suspects in jail until a mob performed the lynching. Lynchings became mass spectacles with a circus-like atmosphere because they were intended to emphasize majority power. Children often attended these public lynchings. A large lynching might be announced beforehand in the newspaper.

Despite Reconstruction, the South became a poverty-stricken backwater and whites re-established their supremacy. Historian Eric Foner argues, “What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, and that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure.”

Today, African-Americans account for just over 12% of the US population. About 50% of all prison inmates are black. In 2005, 8.1% of all black males age 25 to 29 were in prison, compared to 1.1% of white males.  Wilbert Rideau, a former inmate at Louisiana State Penitentiary (Angola Prison Farm), wrote in 2010 that “slavery was commonplace in Angola with perhaps a quarter of the population in bondage”. Weak inmates were gang-raped, and traded and sold like cattle. C. Murray Henderson, one of the wardens brought in to clean up the prison, said that systemic sexual slavery was sanctioned and facilitated by the prison guards.

Today, Louisiana has poverty, crime and health indicators, particularly for blacks, equivalent to  third-world nations. The average life-span of an African-American in New Orleans was nearly as low in 2003 as in North Korea. In 2003-05, the infant mortality rate (IMR) in the US as a whole for African-Americans was 13.6; the rate for White Americans was 5.7 per 1000 births. IMR is generally seen as an indicator of a nation’s level of health development and  is one of  the best predictors of state failures. Louisiana’s poverty rate is 19.2%; more than 26% of the state’s children live in poverty. The gap between rich and poor continues to widen.

America’s civil war lasted four years and ended 148 years ago. When will the reconstruction and reconciliation process be completed? Has it begun? Is there a mechanism for presenting Louisiana’s case to the UNHRC?

– See more at: http://www.nation.lk/edition/news-features/item/16259-a-tale-of-two-wars-%E2%80%93-a-case-for-the-unhrc.html#sthash.kIz0KufC.dpuf

 

They Do Things Differently in Louisiana

This article appeared in Ceylon Today on Wednesday August 27 2014.

Colman's Column3

The Consortium of Humanitarian Agencies recently honoured me with an invitation to the launch, on August 15, in conjunction with the Marga Institute, of a publication titled: Issues of Truth and Accountability (The Last Stages of the War in Sri Lanka).

I first encountered CHA in 2010 when I purchased a magazine called Groundview. The Groundview magazine was published by CHA and contained an article that dealt with the aftermath of the war in Sri Lanka.

Post-War Reconstruction

In that article, one Joshua M Shoop chastised the Sri Lankan government for its laggard lack of action in the Northern Province. “The destitution and ineptitude in Mannar Town and the surrounding area is visible to anyone,” he wrote. Josh was studying for a Masters in International Development at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. He had been living in Sri Lanka for all of three months when he wrote his article. “Natives are suffering immensely from the impacts of the war”. Does anyone use the word “natives” anymore? “In progressive nations, this is where a government would come in to assist.”

Josh conceded the government had built new roads, which help the local economy, but he was unhappy because the roads were “helpful for military operations”. This reminded me of the Monty Python sketch in which John Cleese as Reg of the PFJ (People’s Front of Judaea) complained, “What have the Romans ever done for us?” “Reg: All right, but apart from the sanitation, the medicine, education, wine, public order, irrigation, roads, the fresh-water system, and public health, what have the Romans ever done for us? PFJ Member: Brought peace? Reg: Oh, peace? SHUT UP!”

Dependency Culture

 

Josh claimed the military was depriving “the locals” (that is what tourists call “the natives”) of jobs. “Several international and community-based organisations are operating in the area, assisting where they can, while further perpetuating a dependence on foreign aid.” Josh was one of those perpetuating that and planning a career based on such dependence. I would be interested to know how his career had developed. A Google search did not enlighten me.

 

Third World Louisiana

 

“Natives” in Louisiana, particularly blacks, are still “suffering immensely from the impacts” of America’s own civil war. That war lasted four years and ended 145 years ago. Sri Lanka’s civil war lasted 30 years and only ended 16 months before Josh wrote his article. Today, Louisiana has poverty, crime and health indicators, particularly for blacks, equivalent to those of third- world nations. The average life span of an African-American in New Orleans is nearly as low as for a North Korean. By contrast, Sri Lanka is a paradise. The World Health Organisation has said that Sri Lanka’s health indicators are improving all the time.

Tsunami and Hurricane

We are coming up to the tenth anniversary of the tsunami that devastated Sri Lanka’s coastal areas. Hurricane Katrina hit Louisiana on Monday, August 29, 2005. It would be instructive to contrast Sri Lanka’s reaction to the tsunami with the US response to Hurricane Katrina. The immediate Sri Lanka state response to the tsunami on 26 December 2004 was weak, but an effective, spontaneous, immediate response was organized locally, followed by the government and international agencies. Temporary shelter for the displaced was provided in schools, other public and religious buildings, and tents. Communities and groups cooperated across barriers that had divided them for decades.

Susantha Goonathilake wrote in his book, Recolonization, “Monks gave up their robes to bandage victims, looked after their children and babies, fed them from whatever little provisions they had, and comforted them. Illustrative of the genuineness of this response was the remote Eastern province temple of Arantalawa. Here LTTE death squads had once hacked to death young Buddhist monks. Now Arantalawa opened itself to nearly 1,000 refugees, most of whom were from the Tamil community and may well have included the very assassins who had hacked the young Buddhist monks”.

Twenty thousand Sri Lankan soldiers were deployed in government-controlled areas to assist in relief operations and maintain law and order. Sri Lanka’s past investments in a broad-based public health system and community awareness of basic sanitary and hygienic practices ensured that there were no disease outbreaks. Essential medical aid, emergency food, and other relief supplies were mobilized within a day. It was possible to feed, clothe, and shelter survivors; provide the injured with medical attention; and ensure that the thousands of bodies were quickly cremated or buried.

In 2008, Judge Stanwood Duval of the US District Court placed responsibility for surge protection failures in New Orleans on the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). USACE could not be held financially liable because of sovereign immunity in the Flood Control Act of 1928.

Primum non nocere

Sheri Fink’s brilliant book Five Days at Memorial: Life and Death in a Storm-Ravaged Hospital describes what happened to hundreds of patients stranded in the Memorial Hospital in New Orleans for five days.

The hospital was part of a private for-profit chain owned and operated by the Dallas-based Tenet Healthcare Corporation. There was no generator mechanic on duty; there was no evacuation plan, despite the city’s history of hurricanes and flooding. The hospital generators were expected to work for 72 hours, but most were in the basement, which soon flooded. On August 31, the last generator gave up. Sewer systems and essential medical equipment were not operating. Staff smashed windows to let in air. In some parts of the hospital oxygen supplies ran out. Fifty-two patients, few of whom could walk, were in an intensive care wing without light or air conditioning. Could they survive?

Doctors felt the need to make some hard decisions and later referred to their behaviour as “battlefield triage”. This was not a war. Conditions were difficult but the hospital had food and water and was only a mile from dry ground.

Reverse Priorities

Patients who could walk were placed high on the priority list for evacuation and those with “do not resuscitate” orders were placed at the bottom. Evacuation began slowly on the third day. On the fifth day, the euthanasia began. On September 1, 2005, morphine and midazolam, a nervous-system depressant, were administered. Some of these patients, it later transpired, were not as infirm as they appeared, and fatal injections were given even after rescue helicopters had arrived.

New Orleans’s public Charity Hospital had about twice the number of patients as Memorial, a lower ratio of staff to patients, and no helipad or corporate assistance. There was similar flooding and lost power, but only nine patients died. The public hospital had a different ethos than the for-profit Memorial – “the sickest were taken out first instead of last”.

Homicide?

When the evacuation from Memorial was complete, 45 patients were dead. Forensic consultants determined that 23 corpses had elevated levels of morphine and other drugs, although few of these patients had been prescribed morphine for pain. The investigators decided that 20 patients were victims of homicide. One patient in particular, Emmett Everett, was alert and in the hospital awaiting surgery for a condition not acutely life-threatening. He was only 61. He had fed himself breakfast that morning. One of his nurses later told investigators he had said, “Cindy, don’t let them leave me behind.” Dr Anna Pou was alleged to have administered a lethal cocktail of drugs to Everett with the intent of ending his life.

One doctor admitted to Fink smothering a man to death with a towel when the morphine did not work. Fink focuses largely on the investigation into the actions of Dr Pou and two intensive care nurses, Cheri Landry and Lori Budo, all three of whom were charged with second-degree murder. Anna Pou was regarded locally as a heroine who worked under desperate conditions and was now being victimised by the inept authorities who were responsible for the city’s plight. The charges against Landry and Budo were eventually dropped, and a grand jury chose not to indict Pou in 2007.

Hippocratic Oath

The main precept of bioethics, enshrined in the Hippocratic Oath, is “given an existing problem, it may be better not to do something, or even to do nothing, than to risk causing more harm than good.” Dr Bryant King, an internist at Memorial, told CNN after he had escaped by boat, “I’d rather be considered a person who abandoned patients than someone who aided in eliminating patients.” Bioethicist Arthur Caplan wrote in his expert report that the administration of the drugs was “not consistent with the ethical standards of palliative care that prevail in the United States”. He wrote that the death of a patient must not be the goal of a doctor’s treatment; and death, in his opinion, was the goal in these in cases.

Anna Pou went on to make much money as a lecturer on “ethical considerations” in disaster medicine. In her lectures, she has been less than candid about the conditions at Memorial hospital. She neglects to mention her decision to inject her patients with fatal doses of morphine.

Licence to Kill

Orleans Parish District Attorney Leon Cannizzaro testified, “human beings were killed as a result of actions by doctors” at Memorial after Hurricane Katrina. …whether or not there was a homicide and whether or not there is a case that can be brought are different matters”. The documentation compiled by investigators (50,000 pages) has been sealed by Louisiana courts. Pou refused to be interviewed by Fink based on her lawyer’s advice.

Pou helped write and pass three laws in Louisiana giving immunity from most civil lawsuits to health care workers operating in mass casualty situations.

New Orleans

Laissez les bon temps rouler!

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New Orleans Gumbo

The history of New Orleans has made the city very different in character from any other city in the USA. Today it is a gumbo of different cultures. The city was founded in 1717. Scottish financial wizard John Law, who was Controller General of Finances of France under King Louis XV, was a gambler and a brilliant mental calculator. Law believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade. In May 1716, Law set up the Banque Générale Privée (“General Private Bank”), which developed the use of paper money. Like a modern day financial speculator Law set up a get-rich –quick scheme (Dubbed the Mississippi Bubble) which almost bankrupted France but did increase the population of the French colony in Louisiana from 700 in 1717 to 8,000 in 1721. Law deemed that a town named in honour of the French Regent, the Duc d’Orleans, should be established 30 leagues above the entrance to the Mississippi, which would also give access to Lake Pontchartrain.

Many hardships were endured along with political and religious discord. Large numbers of black slaves were imported. After the governor, Bienville, was recalled to France relations between the colonists and the indigenous population deteriorated. No one in France managed to make any money out of Louisiana and, in 1762, Louis XV gave it away to Spain. Those in New Orleans who had prospered under the lax rule of the French feared the reputation for strictness that adhered to Spanish rule. Dissatisfaction with the rule of governor Ulloa turned into open rebellion in October 1768 and Ulloa left for Cuba. Spanish authority was re-asserted by General Alejandro O’Reilly (those bloody Irish get everywhere). Generations of New Orleans resident referred to him as “Bloody O’Reilly”. The reality was that, for his day, he was lenient with the rebels and under Spanish rule, New Orleans prospered as never before.

Napoleon wanted to acquire an overseas empire and pressured Spain to cede back Louisiana. President Thomas Jefferson was alarmed at the possible threat to American trade and was under pressure to take military action to seize New Orleans. Diplomacy won the day and after negotiations lasting only two weeks, France sold the whole of Louisiana to the United States for $15 million.

Louisiana joined the Union in 1812. In the same year, the US declared war on Great Britain. The war, which ended with the defeat a large British force at New Orleans by US forces led by Andrew Jackson, (with the help of the pirates Jean and Pierre Lafitte). As is usual with the deadly accountancy of war, the precise numbers of casualties in the Battle of New Orleans are disputed. All historians agree that American losses were small and British horrifically large. Ironically, a peace treaty had been signed two weeks before the battle.

New Orleans enjoyed over 50 years of prosperity after this, mainly thanks to its location at the mouth of the Mississippi. New Orleans became a tollhouse for the region because almost all goods had to pass through the city. The handling of transhipments made a good living for factors, insurers, shippers and stevedores. Large numbers of German and Irish immigrants began arriving at this time. The population of the city doubled in the 1830s and by 1840 New Orleans had become the wealthiest and third-most populous city in the nation.

Sadly, the prosperity was not permanent. Slow erosion began in the 1830s, when the Erie Canal began to divert the commerce of the upper Midwest to the East and New York. By the early 1850s, railroads accelerated the rate of diversion to the East. New Orleans weathered the Civil War better than most Southern cities. However, following the war, Louisiana, was under martial law. White Democrats blocked black voter-registration and institutionalised racial discrimination. 47% of Louisiana’s population in 1900 was African-American – 652,013 black citizens. By 1910, there were only 730 black voters. White Democrats had established one-party rule which they maintained long into the 20th century.

Huey P Long, known as the Kingfish, was elected governor of Louisiana in 1927 and built what many consider to have been a dictatorship. Long was a populist who improved the roads, built hospitals and expanded social welfare programmes. One of his mottoes was “every man a king”. Another was “L’état est Huey”. Long stifled democracy through his vast political patronage system and demanded loyalty without dissention. The Kingfish was assassinated at the age of 42 and succeeded by his brother Earl who used similar methods.

THE CITY

New Orleans is below sea-level and has more miles of canals than Venice. In the early 1900s it was still mainly swamp and flooding was a great problem until an engineer called A Baldwin Wood invented the Wood Screw Pump, which enabled the Sewerage and Water board to construct an underground drainage system. New Orleans is like  an island. The Mississippi curves around it on one side, Lake Pontchartrain and its marshes on another side and the Gulf of Mexico on the southern rim. It could be considered the northernmost island of the Caribbean. There is a black majority in New Orleans, although whites have the economic power and the heritage is European.

New Orleans had attracted a steady trickle of tourists since the 18th century but they had been mainly wealthy individuals who had no impact. The New Orleans Exposition of 1884-85 failed in its grandiose aim of bringing new industry but it did mark the beginning of mass tourism. Journalist bored by the Exposition wrote about the charms of the city and visitors from the north became interested in discovering this exotic place in their own country.

katrina-new-orleans-flooding4-2005

The city has suffered more than its fair share of fires, floods and hurricanes. The city has gone underwater 27 times, about once every 11 years. Each time, the fractious French, Spanish, blacks, Creoles, and Cajuns raised the levees and rebuilt. Hurricane Katrina exposed the weakness of the levee system and the authorities reacted with staggering incompetence compared with the way Sri Lanka dealt with the tsunami. The rebuilding process after Katrina ignored the lessons that should have been learnt from the great Mississippi River flood of 1927. Global warming is raising the Gulf faster than at any time since the last ice age thawed. Sea level could rise several feet over the next century. Even before then, hurricanes may draw ever more energy from warming seas and grow stronger and more frequent.

However, businesses have steadily reopened and the major festivals continue every year. Tourist areas weren’t flooded.

The BP oil spill in 2010 saw 4 million barrels of oil gushed into the Gulf of Mexico . A chunk of the $15 million BP initially sent to Louisiana in June 2010 funded emergency advertising to quell misperceptions that New Orleans was laden with oil.

New Orleans has been plagued for decades by economic decline—just a single Fortune 500 company is still headquartered there—shrinking population, failing schools, and high crime.

Oliver Houck sat in his office, hands locked behind his head, pondering the question on everyone’s mind. “There are people who will fight to the death to stay here because it’s such a damned joy to live here.”

GETTING THERE

The international airport for New Orleans used to be called Moisant Field. Now it is called Louis Armstrong New Orleans International Airport. It is 15 miles from the city.  There are no direct flights from Colombo to New Orleans. We flew from London to Washington DC and stayed with friends on our way to visit family in Louisiana. Emirates fly daily non-stop from Dubai to Washington. They also fly to Houston. There are internal flights to New Orleans from other US cities. Union Passenger Terminal in the Central Business District is the arrival point for Amtrak trains from Washington and other cities. The terminal also serves Greyhound intercontinental buses. Major road routes into town are Interstate 10, 55,90 and 61.

WHERE TO STAY

We stayed at the St Charles Guest House in the Garden District. This was on the strength of enthusiastic reviews in “insider” guides. I see that it is still getting rave reviews on Trip Advisor. Dennis the proprietor was pleasant and helped us organise a trip to the bayous. However, we did not see the charm in shared bathrooms, peeling wallpaper and dim lights. There is no restaurant – breakfast comes in packets from vending machines. One review says “stay away from this rat hole”. Although the Garden District is but a short ride on the streetcar from the French Quarter, next time I go I will book a more expensive hotel in the quarter itself. It was a bit scary waiting for the streetcar late at night and was not easy to get a cab.

In the De Luxe category, the Royal Sonesta is on Bourbon Street itself. In the Expensive category, the Monteleone on Royal Street has 600 rooms and is the oldest hotel in the Quarter. Paul McCartney once stayed at Le Richelieu on Chartres Street. Macca is known to be careful with his money. This converted macaroni factory is classed as “Moderate”.

At certain times of year, it is best to book in advance. We went at Halloween, which is like a mini-Mardi Gras. Hotel rooms will be scarce and expensive around Mardi Gras, Jazz & Heritage Festival. and Superbowl. You will get exceptional hotel deals in July and August but you will also get heat and humidity.

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CREOLE AND/OR CAJUN?

The word” Cajun “has accrued a derogatory connotation akin to “cracker” or poor white. The even more pejorative demotic is “coon ass”. The word itself is a corruption of “Acadian”. In 1755, six thousand French speaking settlers were forcibly removed by the British from a settlement at the Bay of Fundy and ended up after many hardships in Louisiana. Many more who escaped deportation were imprisoned in Halifax and moved to New Orleans in 1765. The colonial government found a use for them in raising cattle. Their frugality and industrious were an asset but also a source of friction with those with French Creole pretensions.

The French frontier elite of former army officers attempted to re-create along the banks of Bayou Teche their vision of feudalistic France with themselves as the aristocracy. On the other hand, recently discharged French enlisted men developed a group identity and fierce individualism, which gave them much in common with the displaced Acadians.

Those exiled from Nova Scotia intermarried with other ethnic groups including Native Americans. Present day Cajuns derive from a variety of ethnic groups.

The term “creole” used to refer to those who are descended from the colonial settlers in Louisiana, especially those of French and Spanish descent. The term was first used during colonial times by the early French settlers to refer to those who were born in the colony, as opposed to those born in the Old World. The commonly accepted definition of Louisiana Creole today is the community whose members are a mixture of mainly French, Spanish, African, and Native-American heritage. This is complicated by the fact that Louisianans of African descent also identify themselves a Creoles.

EAT

Chef Paul Prudhomme With Jambalaya Outside K-Paul's

New Orleans prides itself on food and sustains 1,500 restaurants. At the top end, you have Antoine’s on St Louis Street, which is still going strong after 174 years. Celebrity chef Paul Prudhomme works his magic at K-Paul’s Louisiana Kitchen on Chartres Street. The place is small and they do not accept reservations, so there are long queues. Another celebrity chef, Susan Spicer, operates at Bayona on Dauphine Street, where the speciality is nouvelle cuisine. She has a number of restaurants around the city. On June 26, 2010, Spicer filed suit against BP for damages incurred by her restaurant, Bayona.

susan spicer

The Café du Monde on Decatur Street by Jackson Square is a must, even though they only serve coffee, orange juice and beignets (a kind of doughnut dusted with powdered sugar – it can make one cough and sneeze). Many moderately priced cafés serve tasty mouthfuls like the po ‘boy – a sandwich made with locally baked French bread loaves—crusty on the outside, fluffy on the inside. The loaf is sliced open and filled with batter-fried shrimp or oysters. Other popular versions are stuffed with andouille and spicy Italian sausage, soft-shell crab and catfish. A muffuletta sandwich consists of a loaf split horizontally and covered with layers of olives diced with celery, cauliflower, carrot, mortadella, salami and mozzarella.

mufaletta

MUSIC

Cajun and black Creole music developed side by side. There was much intermingling of different cultures. In the 1930s, Dennis McGee recorded with Amédé Ardoin. Ardoin was black. McGee’s name suggests Irish origin but his facial features reflected American Indian origin. The duo sang about the loneliness of the cowboy’s life in French to the tune of a European mazurka influenced by the blues. A distinctive Cajun sound is the diatonic accordion adopted from German Jewish merchants.

professor-longhair-music

The exotic history of New Orleans and its rich ethnic mixture has made it a fertile place for wonderful music. Some great musicians helped build the city’s reputation: Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, James Booker (Dr. John described Booker as “the best black, gay, one-eyed junkie piano genius New Orleans has ever produced”) Sidney Bechet, Professor Longhair, Fats Domino, Ernie K-Doe, Allen Toussaint, Dr John, the Neville Brothers and the Marsalis family to mention only a few.

Although purists might pooh-pooh it, one can get a great musical experience just walking up and down Bourbon Street. Bars and restaurants cater for musical browsing by providing alcohol in go-cups.  The house of Blues on Decatur is the prime venue which has hosted everybody from Fats domino to Eric Clapton.

mother-in-law lounge

If you want to be adventurous a list of some 80 music venues can be found here: http://www.neworleansonline.com/neworleans/music/musicclubs.html

Michaul’s on Magazine Street in the CBD has live Cajun music and dancing as does Mulate’s on Julia Street in the Warehouse District. Tipitina’s (named after Professor Longhair’s most famous song began as a neighborhood juke joint, established in 1977, by a group of young music fans (The Fabulous Fo’teen) to provide a place for Professor Longhair to perform in his final years.) on Napoleon Avenue, Uptown offers classic New Orleans rhythm and blues as well as traditional jazz. The Nevilles perform here when they are in town. Special guest on November 7 was Hugh Laurie!

nevilles

SITES TO SEE

The Cities of the Dead have elaborate aboveground tombs and vaults because buried corpses had a tendency to float up again. The most ornate tombs are at St Louis Cemetery No.1 and Metairie Cemetery. Most of the cemeteries are in crime-ridden areas.There are many museums, my favourite being the Jazz Museum which is now located at 916 N. Peters Street. Others you might try are Ripley’s Believe It or Not or the Voodoo Museum. There are many art galleries, particularly in the Warehouse District which has developed into the Greenwich Village of New Orleans. Although various disasters destroyed many old buildings, much great architecture remains to be viewed, such as the Cabildo and the Presbytere. The architect of the Pontalba Buildings on Jackson Square was James Gallier, who was actually an Irishman called Gallagher.

BUYING

Many visitors will feel under pressure to buy food-related items. My own feeling is that too many people labour under the delusion that Cajun or Creole masterpieces can be achieved with readymade concoctions in jars and packets. I was happy buying jazz and other genres on the French Market. I was lucky enough to find a young knowledgeably vendor who made some enthusiastic recommendations of artists (Davell Crawford and Danny Barker)  I had  not previously been familiar with. Not far from there is the Farmer’s Market, which, in addition to fresh food products, has a flea market on Saturdays. There are many posh shopping malls in the CBD. Go to Royal Street if you want antiques.

GETTING AROUND

There is a contradiction. The French Quarter is compactly walkable but the city as a whole is not walker-friendly. Hitchhiking is illegal in Louisiana. There are interesting things to experience in the Greater New Orleans area, which includes Algiers, the Warehouse District, the Garden District, the Irish Channel, the Central Business District (CBD) and Uptown. London cabbies sometimes get a bad press. I have always found them professional, if sometimes unfriendly. They spend years learning their way around the city – “The Knowledge”. Some New Orleans taxi drivers are knowledgeable and tell you many things about the city and themselves. This can be charming or tiresome. Some drivers do not speak English and get lost. It is best to establish a relationship with a particular cab firm or driver. The RTA (Regional Transport Authority) operates the streetcars and buses and provides an excellent colour-coded map of routes. You need to have the correct fare ready but you can buy VisiTour Passes for unlimited travel. A ferry operates between Canal Street Wharf and Algiers.

GETTING AWAY

Your hotel should be able to arrange a trip to the Bayous. Honey Island Swamp consists of nearly 70,000 acres of permanently protected wildlife. Top of the range here would be those trips arranged by ecologist Dr Paul Wagner. Do not watch the movie Southern Comfort before going. An hour and a half west of New Orleans is Lafayette, the centre of Cajun country, where you will be likely to hear good music and eat good food.

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The plantation system may have been an abuse of human rights and a contributory factor to civil war but it left some wonderful mansions behind, among them Destrehan (the oldest, built in 1787) and Houmas House which was the location for the movie Hush, Hush, Sweet Charlotte. Many of the mansions offer accommodation.

My appreciation of the work of John James Audubon is tempered by the knowledge that he killed the birds before he painted them. You might wish to visit the 100-acre Audubon State Commemorative Area, which includes a mansion I visited on Oakley Plantation. Audubon lived at Oakley while tutoring the daughter of the owner.

There are many companies offering Mississippi river cruises by steamboat. Some carry on the old tradition of riverboat gambling.

I was offered a visit to Angola prison farm but I demurred. Bizarrely, there is a museum and shop at the prison and a rodeo.

TRAVEL ADVISORY

Mention of Angola brings me to the vexed issue of crime. Even the most enthusiastic New Orleans guidebooks warn against venturing into some areas. Walking alone in Louis Armstrong Park even in daylight is risky. New Orleans was America’s most murderous city for much of the last two decades. According to the FBI’s Crime in the United States report for 2012, the murder rate for New Orleans was 53.2 per 100,000 people. This put it in third place behind Flint with 62.0, and Detroit with 54.5. Joy should not be unconfined because in 2012 Jackson, Miss., had the No. 4 murder rate in the country, but its rate of 35.8 was about a third lower than the New Orleans rate.

Today, Louisiana has poverty, crime and health indicators, particularly for blacks, equivalent to third- world nations. Many of the recommended music venues are on a long street called Frenchman’s. At one end is a park which hosts abusers of many kinds of substances. I don’t know what is at the other end because I got in a cab after being stared at malevolently by sinister groups of people. This was in the bright light of morning. In 2004, a mugger shot and wounded the singer-songwriter Ray Davies CBE of the Kinks at 8.30 in the evening in the French Quarter.

New Orleans gave me the impression of being a segregated city. Although the music is a melange of black and white styles and black and white musicians often collaborate in the studio, there was taboo against them playing onstage together. Although Amédé Ardoin crossed racial boundaries by performing with Dennis McGee, he died in 1941 after being savagely beaten for using a white girl’s handkerchief to mop his brow.

The victims of Hurricane Katrina were disproportionately black.  More than 80% of African-American births in inner city New Orleans are to unmarried women. A cohort of rootless adolescent males translates into potential social disorder. Blacks form a disproportionate share of the US prison population. Louisiana State Prison at Angola Prison Farm, like US prisons generally, incarcerates a disproportionate number of blacks. Two of Louisiana’s great musicians – Huddie Ledbetter and James Booker – did time there. The prison is on land bought in the 1830s with slave-trading profits. In the 1930s, hardened criminals broke down upon being notified that they were being sent to Angola. Even in the 1970s, weak inmates served as slaves who were gang-raped, and traded like cattle. In 2009, James Ridgeway wrote in Mother Jones magazine that Angola was “An 18,000-acre complex that still resembles the slave plantation it once was.”

The average life span of an African-American in New Orleans is 69.3 years, nearly as low as North Korea. Louisiana’s poverty rate is 19.2%; more than 26% of the state’s children live in poverty. The gap between rich and poor continues to widen. Use of food stamps jumped 13 % in 2008  to nearly 9.8 million U.S. households, led by Louisiana.

WATCH, READ

The 1940s film noir Dark Waters shows dirty dealings at the Big House but portrays Cajuns as warm and well-adjusted. Southern Comfort shows them as inbred and psychotic. Some thrillers convey the atmosphere of New Orleans; Clint Eastwood wallows in the city’s moral ambiguities in Tightrope; Dennis Quaid and Ellen Barkin are charming in The Big Easy (great music on the soundtrack). In Werner Herzog’s version of The Bad Lieutenant Nicholas Cage shoots it out in one of the cemeteries. Alec Baldwin, Eric Roberts and Terri Hatcher put on a good show in Heaven’s Prisoners based on one of James Lee Burke’s Dave Robichaux thrillers. In the movie version of In the Electric Mist with Confederate Dead, Tommy Lee Jones plays Robichaux and Levon Helm of The Band plays a ghost.

Tremé is television drama series created in which David Simon attempts to do for New Orleans what he did for Baltimore in The wire. It takes its name from, a neighborhood of New Orleans. The series begins three months after Hurricane Katrina as the residents of New Orleans, including musicians, chefs, Mardi Gras Indians, and other New Orleanians try to rebuild their lives, their homes and their unique culture in the aftermath of the 2005 hurricane.

Robert Penn Warren’s All the King’s Men has been filmed at least twice. The book fictionalises the story of Huey Long. Many people rave about Confederacy of Dunces by John Kennedy Toole. I have read it more than once but still find it childish and irritating. The plays of Tennessee Williams convey the atmosphere of the city and many have been filmed. See Marlon Brando in A Streetcar Named Desire. The streetcar line from Desire Street line was converted to buses in 1948. a 1906 Brill-built semi-convertible streetcar was displayed in the French Market with a Desire route sign, although there is no evidence that cars of this type ever served the Desire Line. It is currently housed at Carrollton Station in the car shops.

There are many guides to New Orleans. The most convenient to carry around is Richard Saul Wurman’s which is like a map that folds up to fit your pocket.  Wurman is an American architect and graphic designer who coined the phrase ‘Information Architecture’ and is considered a pioneer in the practice of making information easily understandable. Wurman has written and designed over 83 books, and created the TED conference, as well as the EG conference, TEDMED and the WWW suite of gatherings, now in development. His ACCESS city guides, using graphics and logical editorial organization to make places such as New York, Tokyo and Rome understandable to visitors.

A bulkier guide is the Insight Guide. Both Insight and Berlitz travel and language guides are produced in Apa Publications’ editorial offices in London, not far from the Old Vic. Every Insight Guide I have read has been excellent. The New Orleans Insight Guide is no exception. Essays on various aspects of the city, its history and culture, are written by experts. The photographs are excellent.

Much information can be gleaned online:

http://www.myneworleans.com/New-Orleans-Magazine/

http://www.neworleansonline.com/neworleans/tours/multilingualtours.html?gclid=CL7E5am3yLoCFcLypAod70EAzw

Sample some N’Awlins music on YouTube:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UBSN7WOPkQ0 Tipitina – Professor Longhair and the Meters.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BB8mxXJ7s9E&list=PLD4A7JdED5owxFva5DfFnkCNlnqfjLCpk – Hey Pocky Way -The Wild Tchoupitoulas

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=498LZARXzN0&list=PLD4A7JdED5owxFva5DfFnkCNlnqfjLCpk Meet the Boys on the Battleground – The Wild Tchoupitoulas.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hf15HrUZ5Wk Right Place, Wrong Time – Dr John & Eric Clapton

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IhOqtCuP1yQ ZuZu Mamou – Dr John, the Night Tripper

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bcKhpBPFPoU Four Hands Boogie Woogie – Dr John & Jools Holland

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xY25dnhHntc Louisiana Saturday Night – Doug Kershaw

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0M0AMM637s4 Evangeline Special Jo-El Sonnier

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8X3t999Z2oI Cajun Stripper – Doug Kershaw

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wrwbQ6UKl2E Blues at Montreux – Clarence Gatemouth Brown

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t8iby0PmUKU Born in Louisiana – Clarence Gatemouth Brown

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O87iUDZGDKs Yellow Moon – Neville Brothers (with gusts Herbie Hancock and John Hiatt)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6HjCbKnzDzQ Tell It Like It Is – Aaron Neville (with Bonnie Raitt and Gregg Allmann

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DND5Cy6M2Cs Walkin’ to New Orleans – Fats Domino

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jCdWvCblaW8 Mahogany Hall Stomp – George Lewis

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zZyuNXtcoac The City of New Orleans – Allen Toussaint

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oGAFOz5GA8I Southern Nights – Allen Toussaint

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AGEToLa9v3s Holy Cow – Allen Toussaint

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=liVv4PMPx2o What do You Want the Girl to Do? – Allen Toussaint

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C6ldpOBWKAE Get Out my Life Woman – Allen Toussaint

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=esNqrI4jT-I Ride Your Pony – Lee Dorsey

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sL-G1BfTvyI Down south in New Orleans – Bobby Charles (writer of See you Later Alligator).

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AazJUQIEqNM The Back door – DL Menard

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9B3lfqbiwX0 Paper in my Shoe – Boozoo Chavis

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fFUwO_4K1YU&list=PL1605DAB197DE6637 Mathilde – Cookie and the Cupcakes

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D-PL3OEwLa0 The Valley of Tears – Davell Crawford

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjO9A_NnK2w Jock a Mo – Davell Crawford

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sAvCLLTpnH4 Busted – Davell Crawford

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ooy1T6YDUko I Know It’s Real – James Booker

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sJYWvfAWgQg Goodnight Irene – James Booker

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-W0SAB0gm-0 Beatles Medley – James Booker

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cFY47n3MLHg Live at the Maple Leaf – James Booker

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XLq1MugD2dY Eh La Bas – Danny Barker

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wl7_R33mJK4&list=RDXLq1MugD2dY Hindustan – Preservation Hall Jazz Band

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sclhVBsZiGo Mother-in-Law – Ernie K-Doe

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vrttXESgnJM Ernie K-Doe at the Louisiana Hall of Fame.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=atCwKBeq76w – Ain’t Got No Home – Clarence “Frogman” Henry

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T780CxJ5Fbw – Ain’t Got No Home – Clarence “Frogman” Henry (live in England in 2004)

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